While the churches originating in the Second Great Awakening have some superficial similarities, their doctrine and practices vary significantly. Their activity brought about the Radical Reformation, which gave birth to various Anabaptist denominations. The New Testament mentions several post-resurrection appearances of Jesus on different occasions to his twelve apostles and disciples, including "more than five hundred brethren at once",[1Cor 15:6] before Jesus' ascension to heaven. The Oriental Orthodox Churches (also called "Old Oriental" churches) are those eastern churches that recognize the first three ecumenical councils—Nicaea, Constantinople, and Ephesus—but reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon and instead espouse a Miaphysite christology. Jesus Christ became a man (Philippians 2:1-11). The Greek word referring to inspiration in 2 Timothy 3:16 is theopneustos, which literally means "God-breathed".[137]. [199], Accompanying the rise of the "new towns" throughout Europe, mendicant orders were founded, bringing the consecrated religious life out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. Christianity is not a system of ideas but a religion, a way of salvation. These positions deal with how God reveals himself and relates to humans; the character of God; God's plan of salvation; God's design for the church; and end times events. Martin Luther taught that baptism was necessary for salvation, but modern Lutherans and other Protestants tend to teach that salvation is a gift that comes to an individual by God's grace, sometimes defined as "unmerited favor", even apart from baptism. "[67], The Trinity is an essential doctrine of mainstream Christianity. They are presented here as the core doctrines of Christianity. [142] Much scholarship in the past several hundred years has gone into comparing different manuscripts in order to reconstruct the original text. The most basic part of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and Messiah (Christ). God is omniscient, meaning he "knows all things" (Acts 15:18; 1 John 3:20). Orthodox Christianity began to break with Western Christian tradition during the seventh Ecumenical Council in the year 787, and completely split with the church in 1054 during the Great Schism, in which they rejected the authority of the papacy. Compare Major Beliefs of 7 Christian Denominations, Christian Baby Girls Names: From Abigail to Zemira, The Ultimate List of Animals Mentioned in the Bible, Biblical Baby Boy Names: From Aaron to Zechariah, Learn the Meaning of Numbers in the Bible, General Biblical Studies, Interdenominational Christian Training Center. It is the divine nature of Jesus Christ. It refers to the loss of Christianity's monopoly on values and world view in historically Christian societies. [131], Intercessory prayer is prayer offered for the benefit of other people. Barrett, David; Kurian, Tom and others. The primary source of information about the life of Jesus are the Gospels, which were written sometime between 20 and 100 years after his death and became the first four books of the New Testament. [107] The liturgical cycle divides the year into a series of seasons, each with their theological emphases, and modes of prayer, which can be signified by different ways of decorating churches, colors of paraments and vestments for clergy,[108] scriptural readings, themes for preaching and even different traditions and practices often observed personally or in the home. The books of the Bible accepted by the Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant churches vary somewhat, with Jews accepting only the Hebrew Bible as canonical; however, there is substantial overlap. The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (787) finally pronounced in favor of icons. God exists as one being that incorporates three parts known as the Holy Trinity: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Constantine was also instrumental in the convocation of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which sought to address Arianism and formulated the Nicene Creed, which is still used by in Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and many other Protestant churches. [76][77] In the following century, the word was in general use. Christians consider the resurrection of Jesus to be the cornerstone of their faith (see 1 Corinthians 15) and the most important event in history. [486][487] Another famous apologist, G. K. Chesterton, wrote in the early twentieth century about the benefits of religion and, specifically, Christianity. Christians will be raised from the dead when the Lord returns (1 Thessalonians 4:14-17). [37], Many Evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Enos, Olivia. [96][97] Services can be varied for special events like significant feast days. Jesus Christ is perfect and sinless (1 Peter 2:22; Hebrews 4:15). Mary Fairchild is a full-time Christian minister, writer, and editor of two Christian anthologies, including "Stories of Cavalry. Arminianism gained followers in the Netherlands and Frisia. [104] Evangelical churches adhering to the doctrine of the believers' Church mostly use the term "ordinances" to refer to baptism and communion. 25", What the Orthodox believe concerning prayer for the dead, "An open table: How United Methodists understand communion - The United Methodist Church", "ANF04. These variations are a reflection of the range of traditions, and of the councils that have convened on the subject. 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